Three-dimensional digital methods have been developing for years, but only recently have they become cheap and widely available. Open access software combined with consumer driven markets means quality 3D data can be produced cheaply or for free. Photogrammetry is the process of taking measurements from photographs. Archaeology first used photogrammetry at Persepolis in 1885; however, these days full 3D models can easily be created from digital photographs.


Green, J., 2004, Maritime Archaeology: A Technical Handbook (second edition). Left Coast Press: Walnut Creek, CA.

Haydar, M., D. Roussel, M. Maidi, S. Otmane, and M. Mallem, 2011, Virtual and augmented reality for cultural computing and heritage: a case study of virtual exploration of underwater archaeological sites. Virtual Reality 15(4):311-327.

Drap, P., 2012, Underwater Photogrammetry for Archaeology, pp. 111-136. Special Applications of Photogrammetry, D. Silva (ed.). Intech: New York.

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